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      • Active Learning
      • Auditory Issues
      • Behavioral Challenges
      • Calendars
      • Communication and Language
      • Daily Living Skills
      • Deafblind Eligibility
      • Individual Education Plans (IEP)
      • Interaction
      • Intervention and Interveners
      • Orientation and Mobility
      • Routines

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A young girl who is deafblind plays with an accordion.
A young girl who is deafblind plays with an accordion.

The following articles were written by members of the Texas Deafblind Project. You may download any of these articles and make copies. If you use any of the article contents in original writing, please be sure to site them as content developed by Texas Deafblind Outreach, Texas School for the Blind and Visually Impaired, Austin, TX. 

Note: Many of these articles were written a number of years ago and first published in various newsletters published by Texas School for the Blind and Visually Impaired Outreach Programs such as P.S. News, SeeHear, and Texas SenseAbilities by TSBVI Outreach Programs. Even though they are older, the content is still relevant. Some of the language used may be different than the language currently being used in Special Education; over time we hope to revise the language to match todays standards. In the meantime, we hope that the content will be helpful.

Currently only the PDF versions of these files are available for download. 

Some of these articles have been translated into Spanish and some have not. Please be patient as we add the Spanish versions of these articles to our website.

Active Learning

Active Learning and the Exploration of Real Objects

 
By Stacy Shafer and Ann Adkins, See/Hear Newsletter, TSBVI
 
This article describes some of the techniques of Dr. Lilli Nielsen’s Active Learning Theory.
 

Developing my Classroom for Secondary-Aged Students Who Aren’t Actively Engaging with People or Objects

 
By Suzanne Becker
 
A TVI and classroom teacher describes how she serves her secondary-level students who are visually and multiply impaired using Lilli Nielson’s Active Learning approach along with other strategies.
 

An Introduction to Dr. Lilli Nielsen’s Active Learning

 
By Stacy Shafer
 
Stacy Shafer discusses some of the basic strategies of Dr. Lilli Nielsen’s Active Learning Theory.
 

Five Phases of Educational Treatment Used in Active Learning

 
By Kate Moss Hurst
 
This article focuses on five phases of educational approaches that teachers are to use in working with children if they are using an Active Learning theory approach. It summarizes the information first published as part of Dr. Nielsen’s book, Are You Blind?.
 

Incorporating Active Learning Theory into Activity Routines

 
By Kate Moss Hurst and Stacy Shafer
 
This article focuses on Phase IV and V of Lilli Nielsen’s five educational phases of educational treatment outlined in her book, Are You Blind?, and how the Active Learning principles can be incorporated into activity routines.
 

Job One for Educators: Becoming a Good Playmate

 
By Kate Moss Hurst and Stacy Shafer
 
If children learn through play, then we must become better playmates in order to facilitate better learning for the child.
 

Taking a Look at the FIELA Curriculum: 730 Learning Environments by Dr. Lilli Nielsen

 
By Kate Moss Hurst
 
This article is based on a book by Dr. Lilli Nielsen titled The FIELA Curriculum: 730 Learning Environments and lists the developmental behaviors in three-month increments as described in this book.

Auditory Issues

The Importance of Auditory Training for Children Who Are Deafblind

By Jim Durkel

This article discusses the importance of including auditory training in curriculum for students who are deafblind. It also offers some suggestions for activities and resources related to providing auditory training.

Behavioral Challenges

By Kate Hurst and Robbie Blaha, TSBVI Outreach Programs

During the long period of quarantine during COVID-19, many families have reported an increase in self-stimulatory behaviors in their children with sensory impairments, including those who are visually impaired and have additional disabilities or are deafblind. This article was first published in the Spring 1993 issue of P.S. NEWS!!! (Volume V. No. 3) by the TSBVI Outreach Programs. Kate Moss Hurst and co-author Robbie Blaha explore the root causes of activities and behaviors that may be considered to be socially inappropriate and encourage readers to revise their thinking about and reactions to self-stimulatory behaviors. Changing perceptions about these behaviors can help parents and professionals respond more effectively and help guide them in addressing students’ sensory needs.

Calendars

Kersten’s Calendar

By Deanna Peterson

Short description with pictures of a two-week calendar system and how it is used.

Let Me Check My Calendar 

By Robbie Blaha, and Kate Moss 

This articles provides a basic overview of the calendars utilized by student who are deafblind.

Communication and Language

 
By Linda Hagood
 
An article written about conversational interactions with children who are deafblind and have yet to develop formal communication. 
 

Understanding Concept Development and Related Challenges for Academic Students who are Deafblind

By Matt Schultz

This article is a research-based examination of ways to understand the development of concepts by students with deafblindness. It also provides practical suggestions on how to teach and reinforce those concepts for academic students with deafblindness. 

Daily Living Skills

Toilet Training Children with Deafblindness: Issues and Strategies

By Craig Axelrod

Article discussing issues and strategies to help parents and caregivers with children who are deafblind when trying to toilet train. 

Deafblind Eligibility

Let’s Talk Deafblind Eligibility

Overview and discussion of eligibility criteria for coding a child as deafblind in special education.

Individual Education Plan (IEP) 

By Robbie Blaha
 
Students with deafblindness who participate in the general education curriculum face some unique challenges. This article discusses these issues and proposes some strategies for addressing these concerns.

Teaching Strategies and Content Modifications for Students who are Deafblind

By Kate Moss Hurst and Linda Hagood

This article contrasts the modifications typically made in instruction with children who are deaf and hard of hearing or visually impaired and those who are deafblind.

Interaction

Conversations Without Language
By Linda Hagood
An article written about conversational interactions with children who are deafblind and have yet to develop formal communication. 

Supporting High Quality Interactions with Student Who Are Deafblind

By Craig Axelrod

Educators can have more positive, responsive and reciprocal interactions with their students who are deafblind by learning how to modify their own interactive behaviors and adapt the interactive context. High quality interactions contribute to improved educational outcomes for students with deafblindness. This article explores this issue and describes how it the process was used with students who are deafblind at TSBVI.

Intervention and Interveners

Intervener Job Description

A suggested job description that was developed by administrators, parents, paraprofessionals, and VI professionals. 

Interveners: Myths, Legends, and Reality

By David Wiley

There are some misconceptions associated with using interveners to provide support to students with deafblindness in educational settings. The author attempts to clarify intervener myths with the realities of the intervener model.

Ten Issues Consider When Intervening for Students with Deafblindness

By David Wiley

This article provides a framework for analyzing ten common issues a teacher, intervener, or caregiver must address when effectively supporting a student who is deafblind. Questions are provided to help guide a team in planning the best sensory access for the student in all environments.

Orientation and Mobility

Routines

 
By Kate Moss Hurst and Stacy Shafer
 
This article focuses on Phase IV and V of Lilli Nielsen’s five educational phases of educational treatment outlined in her book, Are You Blind?, and how the Active Learning principles can be incorporated into activity routines.
 

Make It Routine

By Robbie Blaha and Kate Moss Hurst

A discussion of the benefits of using routines with children who are deafblind. The article includes guidance on developing routines for use at home and at school.