Resources for Children who are Deafblind with Additional Disabilities

Diving suit and helmet used for deep dives.
Diving suit and helmet used for deep dives.

There is much to learn about working with children who are deafblind with significant additional disabilities. We are still pioneering the development of effective strategies. For those of you who want to dig a little deeper, we have collected a variety of resources we tapped into while researching and writing the content included in this section of the Texas Deafblind Project website.  We hope this helps you to dive a little deeper into the content so that together, we can grow our practice and improve the way we educate these children.

If you have suggestions for other articles or website content that might be added, please send links to

Brain and Sensory Nervous System

Emotions: limbic system, Processing the Environment, MCAT,  Khan Academy, 2013 – 

2-Minute Neuroscience: Primary Somatosensory Cortex, Neuroscientifically Challenged website

All about the Parietal Lobe, Medical News Today, 2020

The Autonomic Nervous System: Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Divisions, Professor Dave Explains, 2013

Psych Explained videos on YouTube with Dr. Kushner:

The Limbic System – Queensland Brain Institute, University of Queensland Australia.

Biobehavioral States

Assessment of Biobehavioral States: Supporting Availability for Learning for Students with Multiple Disabilities including Deafblindness & Profound Intellectual & Multiple Disabilities, 2020. Chris Russell, MS. Ed., TVI, Project Coordinator, New York Deaf-Blind Collaborative.

Assessment of Biobehavioral States and Analysis of Related Influences, 1997. Millie Smith and Stacy Shafer, Texas School for the Blind & Visually Impaired, Austin, TX.

Guess, D., Mulligan-Aull. M., Roberts, S. Struth, J., Siegal-Causey. E. Thompson. B., Bronicki, GJ., & Guy, G. (1988). Implications of biobehavioral slates for the education and treatment of students with the most handicapping conditions. JASH, 13 (3), 163-174.

Wolff, Peter H. (1987). The development of behavioral states and the expression of emotions in early infancy: new proposals for investigation. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Illinois.

Orienting Reflex

Bradley, Margaret M. (2009) Natural selective attention: Orienting and emotion. Psychophysiology. 2009 Jan; 46(1): 1–11.

Rainforth, B. (1982). Biobehavioral state and orienting: Implications for education profoundly retarded students. TASH Journal, 6, 33-37.

Silverrain, A. 1991. An informal paper: leaching the profoundly handicapped child. San Antonio: ESC Region 20.

Sokolov, E.N. (2001).  Orienting Response, International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences,  Elsevier Ltd. 

The Orienting Reflex: The Foundation of Relational Health, Columbia University, 630 West 168th Street, New York, NY 10032

Social and Emotional Development

Behavioral Supports  section of the Texas Deafblind Project website related to social and emotional development and its impact on behavior.

Cameron, Judy. (2017). The Impact of Stress on Brain Architecture and Resilience, 2017 Texas Symposium on Deafblindness, Austin, TX. 

Cameron, J., Zeedyk, S., Blaha, R., Brown, D., van den Tillaart, B., (2017). What Harvard Research Means for Children with Deafblindness, 2017 Texas Symposium on Deafblindness, Austin, TX. 

Humour and playfulness within social cognition (2021). Webinar from Nordic Welfare Center, Apr 29, 2021.

Impact on Social-Emotional Development and Learning, Texas Deafblind Project website.

Hartshorne TS, Schmittel MC. (2016). Social-Emotional Development in Children and Youth Who Are Deafblind by Am Ann Deaf. 2016;161(4):444-453. doi: 10.1353/aad.2016.0036. PMID: 27818400.

Kate Hurst and Robbie Blaha, (1993). Looking at Self-Stimulation in Pursuit of Leisure “I’m Okay You Have Mannerism, Texas School for the Blind & Visually Impaired, Austin, TX.

Making Friends and Developing Social Skills, National Center on Deaf-Blindness. 

Miles, Barbara., Riggio, Marianne. (1999). Remarkable Conversations A Guide to Developing Meaningful Communication with Children and Young Adults Who Are Deafblind, Published by Perkins School for the Blind, 175 North Beacon Street, Watertown, Massachusetts.

Nielsen, Lilli (2003). Are You Blind?, SIKON, Cogenhagen, Denmark.

Stavrou, P.D. (2016). Program of Intervention Referred to the Social-Emotional Development of Deaf-Blind Students. Advances in Social Sciences Research Journal, 3(11) 248-251.

Van der Poel, J.H. (1997). Visual Impairment: understanding the needs of young children. SIKON, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Van Dijk, Jan, no date. The Role of the Emotional Brain. Perkins School for the Blind.

Development of the IEP for Programming

Center for Parent Information and Resources –

Instruction in the General Education Curriculum resources:

Active Learning Space

Creating Programming

Texas Deafblind Project website



Five Steps of Interaction

Zone of Proximal Development